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Kriegsdorf, our Village | History
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Kriegsdorf (Hadad)

 

Historical Overview



The first archaeological finds on the territory of today's community Kriegsdorf Hadad) come from the Hallstatt period.
In 1368 the castle Adod is mentioned.
1461, the place was named a market town.

The Prince of Transylvania gives the place as a present to his chamberlain, Franz von Wesselényi.
During this period (15.-century) is also built the present Hungarian Reformed Church in Gothic style.
The county, later named Satu Mare County, was part of the Principality of Transylvania, was owned 1691 / 1699 by the Habsburgs after the expulsion of the Turks and belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary.

1744 - 1751, the reformed Baron Franz Wesseleny called 30 families of evangelical Confession of Baden-Durlach and Switzerland to his estate in the village Kriegsdorf (Hadad), which belonged to one of his many possessions. (6)
In 1749 the first settlers with the names Bredel, Brown, Erler, Eiben, Herold, Henkel, Hotz, Krumbacher, Löscher, Siegel, Sinn, and Weniger were documented.
The places of origin of these settlers are: Badenweiler, Britzingen, Eichen, Eichstetten, Fischingen, Hügelsheim, Laufen, Müllheim, Opfingen, Wolfenweiler.
1750 more settlers arrived coming from the towns: Gallenweiler, Gundelfingen and Nimburg.
1751 there is a third wave of settlers coming from the towns: Bahlingen, Buggingen, Dattingen and Reichenbach.
The settlement was below the existing Hungarian town Hadad place.
At the founding of the German settlement enough building land was kept vacant for public buildings (School, church, parish house) between the homesteads.
The settlers built their houses within the 3 roads: "Great Lane, "" Mean Street "and" Upper Street ".
On the employment of the settlers, we know: "The first German colonists in Hadad were mostly artisans, especially weavers, but the other crafts like locksmiths, blacksmiths, tanners, etc. were also
represented.“
But the craft alone could not feed the colonists. Thus, agriculture had to stay for additional revenue source.
"The colony developed initially quite strong. As early as next year after their arrival, they built, supported by the basic rule of Reformed religion Wesselényi Francis Baron, a small prayer house and keep a school master for the care of their worship and instruction of their children. After several years the colony has been capable to hire its own minister named George Fabritius, but after six years of service he would leave”.
Thereafter, the municipality has for 23 years not occupying a German priest. There have been attempts
to convert the evangelical faithful to the Catholic faith.
"Part of the colonists are tempted by the Jesuits, especially by paying their carelessly made debts, to decline the Protestant religion. Perhaps this example would have been followed by others which remained loyal, but this was prevented by the intervention of the strictly Reformed Landlord, Baron Wesselenyi, who took back the grated land from the apostate Protestant Germans and withdrew them from their Homesteads”. (10)
In the years without a pastor the settlers of Kriegsdorf employed a teacher who was also took over the church services and once a year, a pastor from Cluj came for the Communion celebration.
At this celebration of the Eucharist also Protestant believers from the city Nagy-Banya, (Baia Mare), came, whose church was destroyed during this period.
1763 - 1776, the castle Wesselényi is built.
1770 Empress Maria Theresa renewed the city’s market rights.
1776, 19 June  the Protestant believers from the village of Kriegsdorf asked the pastor from Klausenburg to mediate the installation of  a new Protestant minister, to whom they promised certain benefits and with whom they wanted to build a new prayer home.

1776 the year the parish house of the Hungarian Reformed Church is built– today a protected historical monument.
In 1780, the evangelical community has grown and decides, with the support their landlord, as well as the grateful Nagy-Banya community and the Evangelical Bishop Andreas Funk in place of the dilapidated prayer house, to build a new church and carry their own pastor.
1780 a contract is closed with the first pastor of the evangelical community. Hans Weniger and Johann Jakob Hotz as called in as witnesses.
1780 - 1812 consecutively followed four Transylvanian Saxon pastor. (8)
1781 the community will begin to build the first church. The baptismal font for the church
was donated by Johann Georg Krumbacher.
1781, in the first minute book of the Protestant community, the reasons for emigration of the settlers were mentioned „the lack of freedom of practicing the Protestant religion, others because of better maintenance of life "(10)
2. May 1781 the first entry in the parish register: the baptism of Anna Maria Herold.
The godparents were: Friedrich Hotz, Anna Maria Krumbacher, Johann Georg Weniger and Anna Bredlin. (7)
1790 - 1810 the castle Degenfeld is built.
1812 - 1819 the pastorate was vacant, "during which time a fellow named Brandner took care of school and church services "(10). At the same time support was given by the Hungarian Reformed pastor. (8)
1819 The Baron Wesseleny appointed, in his capacity as a patron, one of his men, John Dobrovodsky as a pastor. He was the only pastor who was appointed. All other pastors were elected by the community. The Landlord had the right of approval or rejection.
Excerpts from the Taufmatrikeln show from 1812 to 1830, the Magyarisation - attempts by the Hungarian minister. (8)
From 1830, only German priests followed.
1850 Kriegsdorf has 332 inhabitants, who are not tributary to the Baron Wesseleny anymore.
In 1871 the congregation formally recorded in the Evangelical Church AB in Transylvania and incorporated in the church district of Bistrita.
As recorded in the parish register, in the same year, the elementary school is opened (it is known as the repetition school and was mandatory for the youth who ended the elementary school). Kriegsdorf had the only Lutheran German School in the district Satu Mare.
This German school existed from 1750 without interruption.
"The Protestant Germans of the market town Kriegsdorf -  the church and  education were taken care by the Protestant Church of Transylvania  - could save their church school, despite the difficulties the Magyar school authorities were preparing  them, and continue with education in  German after the World War I. "(3)
The Protestant German school of Kriegsdorf was established and supported by the Evangelical Church and was not like the Catholic schools of Satu Mare exposed to Magyarisation by the cleric.
1880 there are 479 German residents in Kriegsdorf. The average age is at this time 25 years. 62% of the population dies before reaching of 30 Year of life. (7)
1890 - 304 German residents
1894 - 1895 The Lutheran church was rebuilt in a larger building.(7)

1896 a brass band has been documented (photo p. 11)
In 1898 the present church was completed. (9)
The Kriegsdorf community is invited by the Hungarian state to build a school. If they do not succeed, so the children would have to attend the Hungarian State School.
1900 Kriegsdorf has 479 inhabitants. The new German school is completed and is attended by nearly 100 students.
1907 Establishment of the Baptist church by the Ungarn Sandor Toth.

Beginning of the 20th Century, along with many Hungarians also 20 German families emigrated to America.
1910 - 135 German inhabitants are registered.
1914 - 1918 First World War. Among the dead: Georg Hotz (born 1881), N. Hotz (1896), J. Reinbold (1893), A. Löscher (1894), J. Edler (1879), J.Siegel (1897), G. Weniger (1899).
1919 - Peace Treaty of Trianon. With the Sathmar/Satu Mare country now, belongs also Kriegsdorf to Romania.
In 1920 the number of Germans rose to 548
In 1930 - 641 Germans
In 1936, the church is being renovated. The pastor Aikelin had a retaining wall build in front of the church, designed to prevent slippage of the clay area.
1937- F. Siegel, the first German mayor elected with one voice majority.
44 men left the village to the Alps near Göppingen Heidenheim to seek work.
In 1938, the German group of Kriegsdorf had a public library. (5)
4. June 1939: Founding of the local chapter NAF (National Workers' Front) (5)
During the school year 1939/40, there were 81 German students attending the confessional school, who were taught by 2 teachers. (3)
1939 - 1945 Second World War. Many young men come to the Wehrmacht and have to go to war.
30. August 1940: Vienna Award. The Sathmar province and Northern Transylvania will be attached to Hungary.
During the school year 1940/41: there are 135 German school children (4);
1941 651 German inhabitants are registered.
30. January 1941: the VDU (People's League of Germans in Hungary) founded
a local group in Kriegsdorf (Administrative note: 4296/1941) Ortsgruppenfuhrer: Hans Majer, Deputy Director: Georg Hotz, Secretary; Ludwig Winkler, librarian: Ludwig Winkler, Treasurer: Richard Siegel, inspectors: Johann Sinn, Christian Reinbold; committee members: Franz Herold, Andreas Reinbold, youth leader, Jacob Reinbold; Deputy: Margarete Bitzo; Secretary: Franz Pretli, librarian: Andreas Hotz; Treasurer: Franz Pretli.
During the school year 1942/43 at the German school in Kriegsdorf 114 students were taught by 2 teachers. (3)
In the academic year 1943/44 108 German students were enrolled. (4)
1944 63 families to flee on the advice of Pastor Aikelin.
1944-1946, the community is without its own pastor.
1945 Northern Transylvania belongs to Romania. The working women and men of German nationality are deported until the end of 1949 for forced labor in the Soviet Union.
After 1945, the German school in Kriegsdorf was one of the three still persisting Sathmar German Schools (in addition to Scheindorf and Burlescht).
1946 (in August) Pastor Johann Herman Miess from Hermannstadt visited for 4 days the Community to make the confirmation. On this occasion the desire for the occupation of the parish and a second teaching position was expressed.
1946 10 families had returned, but had difficulties at first to recover the Romanian citizenship
In 1946, the Protestant Church had 300 members. In the same year, 60 students were enrolled in the school and were taught by the teacher Juliana Feet.

1947, 13 January pastor Zoltán Arvay started service in Kriegsdorf. (9)
1948, the Romanian school reform. The religious school is converted into a state school.
In 1951, Andreas Weniger of Kriegsdorf, who between 1946-1963 was pastor in Tekendorf, was writing the thesis: "My dialect. For two hundred years of existence of the Evangelical Church A.B. in Hadad. 1751-1951 "
1962 Kriegsdorfer many families left the village and move to Engelsbrunn in Banat (Romanian: Fantanele) in Arad County. Here, they asked in 1969 the Evangelical Church to form a separate parish as the support by the evangelical-Hungarian community Arad no longer sufficed their needs. (9)
Reasons for the relocation were: the expropriation of the collectivization of agriculture, better job opportunities in the industry and the better education opportunities for the children.
1966 Kriegsdorf has 372 inhabitants.
At the Kriegsdorf German elementary school students are in taught simultaneously by teachers Johann Rether and Juliana Szabadszalasy (b. Fekete).
The Church's care continues to be carried over by a priest from Bistrita, who visits the community monthly.
During the school year 1972/1973 by the zealous efforts of the parents (School strike) and the teacher Johann Rether, with the support of the German Council Nation Satu Mare (Prof. E. Hauler) a German high school level (5. Class) was approved. In subsequent years, the teaching takes place at the German school until 8th class. It is carried by teachers from Transylvania and Banat: (the German Monika and Johann Bappert from 1973-1978, Mathematics : Joseph Zimmermann from 1975-1978, as well as Elizabeth Mohrend, Brunhilde Ackermann, Josef Tänzler, Marlene Beck and others)
On the German kindergarten  taught from 1974-1977 Regine Fleischer (Bappert).
1975 to prevent the collapse of the church tower, the   spire was removed and replaced with a tile roof. The church exterior is completely renovated and August 24, 1975 by the Bishop of Sibiu inaugurated the church.
1977 Kriegsdorf has 342 inhabitants.
In the eighties, the increased emigration in the Federal Republic of Germany begins.
In 1989, the Romanian revolution took place, when the dictator Nicolae Ceausescu was overthrown.
From 1990, most Germans of Kriegsdorf emigrate.
1992, the census registered only 48 Germans.


Bibliography:
1) Hauler, Ernst, and his Satu Mare Swabians, Vienna, 1987, 111 pages (Eckart writings 102)
2) Straubinger, Johann, The Swabians in Satu Mare, fate Upper Swabian settlers in southeastern Europe Stuttgart, 1927, Kepplerhaus, 120 S
3) Schmied, Stefan: Sathmardeutschen history of the school system from its beginnings to 1971, self-publishing, Leuba / Kempten, 1972, 40 pages
4) Schmied, Stefan: The fate of the Sathmardeutschen after the Vienna Award of 1940, Selbstverlag of the author, Leuba / Kempten, 1978, 60 pages.
5) Schmied, Stefan: The German-Swabian folk community Satu Mare, A contribution to the history of Satu Mare Swabians from 1918-1940, Selbstverlag of the author, Leuba / Kempten, 1976, 76 pages.
6) Müller, Carl, Dr., contributions to the economic history of German settlements in Satu Mare in Romania, Stuttgart, 1932, foreign and home publishing corporation.
7) Matt-Willmatter, Hubert, Kriegsdorf Hadad a Martktgräfler settlement in the country in Satu Mare Romania, Regio-family researchers, Basel, 1990, p. 35-47
8) Thomé, Marie Louise, Madjarisierungsansätze in the Protestant German community Kriegsdorf Counties in Silagy, Deutsches Archiv für Land and People Research, Leipzig, Vol 4 / 1940, page 474-479
9) Ursprung, Daniel, on the situation of the Protestant population of Northern Transylvania 1946th A report on Confirmation in the Hadad Transylvanian Journal of Cultural Studies, Gundelsheim, Vol 25, 2002, Issue 2, Page 237-252
10) Kosch, Thomas, The German colony in Hadad Korrespondenzblatt for Transylvanian geography, Vol 9, 1886, Issue 1, Page 7-9
11) Groos, Dr., correspondent Bulletin Transylvanian Geography, Vol 9, 1886, pages 15-16 12) Teutsch, Frederick, History of the Evangelical Church in Transylvania, Vol 2, Sibiu, 1922, P. 116

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 14 March 2017 11:14